Violation of human rights arising due to climate change with special reference to Asylum seekers
Small island States are among those where the effects of climate change on human rights are quite pronounced. sea level rise has meant water contamination, loss of land and crops for his nation, with people facing a future of possible statelessness. “Climate change impact is a mor.al issue above all. It remains the biggest moral challenge facing human kind, and for low lying countries, climate change is about our survival into the future.Climate change affects many human rights, undercutting the rights to health, to food, to water, and for some small island nations, it may even affect the right to self-determination. Here to discuss a pressing situation where human rights are not be granted to those in need, simply due to not enough media coverage or the lack of bombs and guns, JIRSMUN HRC presents the agenda, Violation of human rights arising due to climate change with special reference to Asylum seekers
Protection of human rights while countering terrorism
“Terrorism hurts all nations – large and small, rich and poor. It takes its toll on human beings of every age and income, culture and religion. It strikes against everything the United Nations stands for. The fight against terrorism is our common mission.” - Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon in statement to Member States on 16 February 2007. The issue of terrorism and human rights has long been a concern of the United Nations. Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001and subsequent surge in acts of terrorism worldwide, it has become even more urgent. While condemning terrorism unequivocally and recognizing the duty of States to protect those living within their jurisdictions from terrorism, the United Nations has placed a priority on the question of protecting human rights in the context of counter-terrorism measures. The defense of human rights and upholding the rule of law while countering terrorism is indeed at the heart of the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. Member States acknowledged that effective counter-terrorism measures and the protection of human rights were not conflicting goals but complementary and mutually reinforcing aims. They pledged to take measures aimed at addressing violations of human rights and to ensure that any measures taken to counter terrorism comply with their human rights obligations. Sadly, in reality, nations seldom comply with the obligations.
Situation in the South China Sea
The current situation in the South China Sea is of utmost importance. With all the big world players coming into the picture now, it is imperative for the United Nations General Assembly First Committee to discuss and deliberate on an issue that can possibly lead to the third world war. The current situation in the region is not limited to a territorial dispute. It will eventually be the deciding factor in who becomes the next world power. With the region accounting for roughly 5 trillion dollars worth of trade, the instability of the same will have grave consequences on the world economy. Therefore the stability of this region is necessary for both the political and economic stability of the world.
Proliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons
Proliferation of chemical and biological weapon has been one of the most important issues on the security agenda of United Nations since the years of the Cold War. The UN Disarmament Forum has created a powerful platform for the global community to start a constructive dialog on the disarmament and prohibition of chemical and biological weaponry use as the legitimate means of modern warfare. With the United Nations working towards its mission to achieve a weapon free world, it has worked towards the reduction of the use and stockpiling of these weapons in the past two decades, there is still a lot left to do. The existence of rogue states and hostile non-state actors, empowered by technological advances of a globalize world, keeps the threat of biological and chemical warfare real.
Kashmir in general with reference to insurgency and counterinsurgency operations.
The Kashmir problem came into being around the same time as independence did. Though 50 years have passed, the “problem “still remains unresolved. To this day , Kashmir remains the largest source of friction between India and Pakistan. Whilst the Hindu Maharaja hesitated over joining India or Pakistan, Pakistan encouraged her-war like tribes to enter the state supported by regular Pakistan army. Having no other option left to him, the Maharaja acceded to India and urgently requested for help. The accession was endorsed by the popularly elected constituent Assembly of Kashmir. The Indian army was deployed in Srinagar and the ‘invaders’ were pushed out of the Kashmir valley. They could not be thrown out of the rest of the state territory, for to do so would have meant attacking Pakistani military bases which in and of itself is a rather unwise act of war. As India wanted to avoid the aforementioned outbreak of war, it appealed to the Security Council, as a result a cease-fire was declared, with Pakistan remaining, in allegedly illegal possession of a part of the state which is called “Azad Kashmir” by Pakistan. The U.N.O. then made various efforts to settle the dispute peacefully. The true facts thus came to light, and Pakistan was accepted by both the countries. The resolution provided that (1) Pakistan would withdraw all its forces from the state. (2) That the Azad Kashmir government and its forces would be disbanded, and (3) when conditions permit, India too, would gradually withdraw her forces. Time passed, but Pakistan did not withdraw her forces nor did it disband the Azad Kashmir Government. Every year it complained to the U.N.O. that was India was oppressing the Kashmir Muslims and the Islam was in danger. On countries occasions, she was guilty of violations of the cease-fire line. Power polities of the big powers also came in the way of a just solution of this dispute. Violence still continues, life in the state is still insecure and thousands have migrated from the valley into Jammu, Delhi and other parts of the country. Kashmir problem is the most serious problem that India and Pakistan face today.
Escalation of European Debt Crisis on the aftermath of Brexit.
As we progress with the movement of the United Kingdom planning to invoke Article 50 which is the mechanism to formally leave the European Union, various countries in Europe holding trade relations with the UK which might be a part of the European Union or not, hold strong opinion on the matter concerning it’s repercussions and to the economical changes it might bring. Following the ongoing Debt Crisis in place with the financial condition of Greece, Spain, Italy and Portugal worsening, the question that remains now is how the countries of the European Union would cope with the new conditions they have to be accustomed to. Would we see something similar to the 2008 Financial Crisis of the United States of the Housing Mortgage embarrassment? Would international border treaties be respected? Would the European Union fall apart? What would be the new policy implemented by the Member Nations to cope with it? And finally, would Brexit escalate the Financial troubles of the countries of the European Union? It’d be fascinating to witness the new stances of the nations following the recent events and also expecting implementations of new policy to tackle the economic crisis at hand and what's to come.
Discussing international effects of Brexit with special reference with Single Market.
As we progress with the movement of the United Kingdom planning to invoke Article 50 which is the mechanism to formally leave the European Union, various countries in Europe holding trade relations with the UK which might be part of the European Union or not, hold strong opinion on the matter concerning it’s repercussions to the economical changes it might bring. The question that remains now is how the countries of the European Union would cope with the new conditions they have to be accustomed to. Would international border treaties be respected? What are the basic social aspects would have different feel due to the new prize rates and what would be the new policy implemented by the Member Nations to cope with it? It’d be fascinating to witness the new stances of the nations following the recent events and also expecting implementation of policy to tackle the economic crisis to come.
The Right to Privacy in the Digital Age
Advances in information communication technology are dramatically improving real-time communication and information-sharing. By improving access to information and facilitating global debate, they foster democratic participation. By amplifying the voices of human rights defenders and helping to expose abuses, these powerful technologies offer the promise of improved enjoyment of human rights. But at the same time it has become clear that these new technologies are vulnerable to electronic surveillance and interception. Recent discoveries have revealed how new technologies are being developed covertly, often to facilitate these practices, with clinical efficiency. As the previous High Commissioner cautioned in past statements such surveillance threatens individual rights – including to privacy and to freedom of expression and association – and inhibits the free functioning of a vibrant civil society.
Predicting and analysing the political and economic ramifications of the use of alternate sources of energy as replacements for petroleum-based products with specific reference to power shifts in the Middle East.
There is a great deal of intellectual ferment about the need to develop alternative energy sources to replace the use of petroleum. Studies released over the last decade have indicated that a large-scale transition into a clean energy economy would significantly benefit the country by creating hundreds of thousands of jobs, generate tens of billions of dollars in tax revenues, and help revitalize struggling countries, at the cost of the non-renewable sector decline causing loss in everything stated above. The plunge in oil prices has been felt dearly by the top hydrocarbon-producing countries, with all experiencing deep losses in revenue that in better times, provides a nice cushion for spending on social programs that keep populations happy and peaceful. Nowhere is this truer than the Middle East, where governments have fattened their treasuries for years on a steady diet of oil and gas revenues that have made their citizens some of the richest in the world, but like all thing it has to come to an end, but at what cost, you have to decide.
Creating a structure to ensure the COP21 Paris Summit Agreement has legal ramifications and penalties for nation states that refuse to reduce fossil fuel consumption which specific reference to “carbon taxes”.
In November 2011, the International Energy Agency warned that the world may be fast approaching a tipping point concerning climate change, and suggested that the next five years will be crucial for greenhouse gas reduction efforts. Avoiding the worst consequences of climate change will require large cuts in global greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change experts have expressed concern that the ongoing global financial crisis could defer action on climate change indefinitely. Even if such reforms were implemented, substantial efforts will still be required to adapt to unavoidable change. Recent climate-related events, such as the flooding in Pakistan and Thailand, have caused focus to fall on adaptation financing for developing countries, which could support infrastructure projects to protect vulnerable areas. Distribution of global emissions reinforces the need for broad multilateral cooperation in mitigating climate change. Fifteen to twenty countries are responsible for roughly 75 percent of global emissions, but no one country accounts for more than about 26 percent. Efforts to cut emissions—mitigation—must therefore be global. Without international cooperation and coordination, some states may free ride on others' efforts, or even exploit uneven emissions controls to gain competitive advantage. And because the impacts of climate change will be felt around the world, efforts to adapt to climate change—adaptation—will need to be global. But conflicting interests and varying circumstances in the international community pose a grave threat to global consensus on the issue.
Situation in Yemen.
The Yemeni Civil War offers a similarly fraught geopolitical paradigm. Since its outbreak in March of 2015, the war has raged between Yemeni forces representing the recognised government of President Hadi and revolutionary forces largely constituted by Houthi fighters and revolutionary elements of the Yemeni security forces. The country is locked in a state of brutal warfare, as both sides jockey for control of the capital Sana’a. Following the revolutionary forces’ (direct by the Supreme Revolutionary Committee) overthrow of the Hadi government, an international coalition of forces headed by Saudi Arabia has initiated aerial operations. The Saudi air force has executed a vast number of airstrikes against revolutionary fighters, many of which have inflicted severe civilian casualties. The UN estimates that as of March 2016 upwards of 6,300 people had died in the conflict, which continues with unabated ferocity. As the conflict has developed, additional actors have entered the fray. Iran and Hezbollah have been accused of funnelling military equipment to the revolutionary fighters: this support would be unsurprising given the brutal rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran.s
The clarinet call of this rapidly developing digital world has completely redesigned the entire educational world for the future generations. I believe that MUNs truly help in preparing children as global citizens with their scintillating programmes.
JIRS is one of the prime institutes of the JGI, with a university at it’s hub.
The main objective of this conference has been to provide a platform to the young leaders & global citizens of tomorrow to step up their responsibility towards their nations and towards the world as a whole.
The conference will draw attention to fundamental issues of global importance through different committees. Our pioneering venture in different competitions are a roaring success due to our enterprising and hardworking team of students and teachers.
I welcome all of you to participate in JIRSMUN,2K17 and hope that this conference would provide the dynamic leaders of today with strategies to help resolve conflicts, currently plaguing the modern world.
Looking forward for brainstorming sessions ahead!
Wg. Cdr.(RETD) K L Ganesh Sharma
Chief Executive Officer
Jain International Residential School.
Competitions are the best form of education any child in today’s world can avail. MUN is an extremely powerful academic learning tool, and institutions across the globe are recognising the importance and essence of the development of a plethora of skills for the future. Through MUN, a child can develop an overwhelming researching habit, a thirst to prove their point, an exceedingly amazing writing force, spontaneity, and of course, the art of public speaking! MUN hones skills in an unimaginable way, putting delegates through an infinite intellectual experience, forcing them to indulge in critical thinking and teamwork.
It is my pleasure to invite you to the first edition of the JIRSMUN, which will take place from 20th to 22nd January,2017, at Jain International Residential School, Bangalore. I cannot wait to host you all at JIRS!
Mrs Ambuj Sharma
PRO and Headmistress
Chief MUN Co-ordinator
Jain International Residential School